Speaking of reward, positive reinforcement refers to operant conditioning, and I won’t bore you with the details right now, but suffice it to say B.F. Skinner, one of the leading researchers on reinforcement, found that positive reinforcement (to reward good behavior) is far more superior to punishment in altering undesirable behavior because positive reinforcement results in lasting behavioral modification, and punishment changes behavior only temporarily; and presents many detrimental side effects. If the problem behavior changes temporarily, it will reappear later, and it comes with even more problem behavior! Good Behavior = Reward and Bad Behavior = Punishment, does that sound familiar? Positive reinforcement training is what exotic animal trainers have used for years to teach dolphins, whales and large cats among other animals.  You cannot force a dolphin to do what it does not want to do!

This type of training is more effective because it builds a bond of trust and cooperation between animals and humans, the animals (and the humans) actually look forward to training! No one looks forward to punishment, or even the probability of punishment!  We all want to be told when we do something right, not belittled, hit or corrected when we do something wrong!
I mean, have you ever seen anyone successfully loose leash walk their dog using a retractable leash? I observed a man yesterday at our local pet food center trying to control his medium sized dog while another customer was walking their very petite pups. Guess what he was using? A retractable leash, that malfunctioned, the dog was able to get far enough away from the owner that he lost control and the dog went right after those little puppies. Luckily, the dog just wanted to say hello, and those two little pooches knew exactly how to take care of themselves! This scenario could have turned out pretty bad.
High quality dog leashes have a good quality metal clip and they can be made of leather, nylon or even chain. The metal clip must securely fasten to a metal ring on the collar in order to maintain good control of the dog.[10] The material of which the leash is made of is not of great importance as long as the leash does not show evidence of wear or fraying. Therefore, leashes should be periodically checked to ensure they are maintained in proper condition.
The retractable dog leash is one of the most comfortable leashes for the dogs because they allow them to go as far as they want as long as the owner does not consider it a danger. Retractable leashes are usually made of nylon and the retractable device is made of plastic or a stronger composite. Although these leashes can be convenient for both the dog and the owner as it allows some control, they make it difficult to keep an aggressive dog under control which can result in persons or other dogs being attacked. Aggressive dogs should not be walked with such a leash, and puppies should be kept closely to ensure their protection from various dangers such as cars. Dogs with a tendency to bolt without warning should be walked with caution, as a retractable lead can allow the dog to accelerate to significant speed before being stopped suddenly presenting the possibility of injury to both dog and owner.[11]
Cat leashes come in a variety of colors, designs and models and are made of different materials. There are cat leashes made of leather, nylon and rope. Whereas the leather leash is one of the best qualities because of the characteristics of the material, it is also one of the most expensive and not very comfortable for the cat at the same time. Nylon cat leashes and harnesses are, however, more elastic, and thus more comfortable and also provide more control.
Leather is a great option for a long-lasting, attractive leash, and the Leatherberg is the best one you can buy. At a great price (under $30), the Leatherberg is constructed from real cowhide leather with a zinc-alloy snap hook, and comes with a full one-year warranty for any reason. It’s made in both black and brown and measures six ft long, perfect for medium to large dogs. This leather leash is treated to stand up to the elements, and won’t attract dust and dog hair the way a nylon version might.
Cat leashes are used with the purpose of preventing the cat getting lost. Unlike dogs, cats rarely attack persons on the street, so cat leashes are mainly a safety measure to protect the pet itself. Very often the collars are replaced with harnesses, because they avoid the dangers of collars which include escaping and running away or choking. Cats are more likely to not be willing to be walked in a harness than dogs are, and are considered to need up to months to be able to adjust to wearing a harness.
If you’re a pet parent to more than one pup, you probably know the struggle of tangled leashes and wishing you had more than two hands. The Vaun Duffy double leash is a great alternative to a traditional leash, offering a pet owner the ability to hold only one leash for two dogs. The Vaun Duffy attaches to a traditional leash and features a swivel clasp that’s designed to keep your dogs from getting tangled up. Each leash also has a neoprene padded handle so you can have more control over one or both dogs during lunging or pulling episodes.
If you’re looking for a leash that’s easy on the wallet, safe and durable, the Blueberry classic leash is a great choice. We love that it comes in 12 different colors and five sizes (ranging from four to five feet in various widths) so that it can work with nearly any dog. If your dog is easy on the leash and doesn’t require a lot of control or guidance, a standard nylon leash will do the job. We recommend this leash for dogs 75 lbs and under, as larger pups may need a stronger version.
As the unleashed dog comes at you, push the button and unleash the umbrella. We aren’t trying to hurt the dog – we are trying to but a barrier between your leashed dog and the outlaw dog. Be aware that if you use an umbrella, throw meat at the oncoming off-leash dog, or use a citronella spray, you are in a way escalating a bad situation. Or, it’s more accurate to say that you are being put in a position that may escalate because of the other owner’s irresponsibility. I’ve had two clients get into fistfights with other owners after spraying an oncoming dog with citronella. On the other hand, we have to protect our dogs. If you use a defensive move, do so carefully cautiously and as a last resort and understand that it might cause more human strife.
Indiana is one of the states that has a restraint statute, which means that dogs must be restrained at all times. Otherwise, if the dog bites a person when not restrained the owner is subject to civil liability and criminal penalties. (Cite needed; definition of "restraint" needed; discussion of local Indiana ordinances forbidding dog tethering needed.)
Cat leashes come in a variety of colors, designs and models and are made of different materials. There are cat leashes made of leather, nylon and rope. Whereas the leather leash is one of the best qualities because of the characteristics of the material, it is also one of the most expensive and not very comfortable for the cat at the same time. Nylon cat leashes and harnesses are, however, more elastic, and thus more comfortable and also provide more control.
If your pup lunges: If your dog is going after something while on a walk — another dog, a car, a skateboarder, for example, be proactive. Try to redirect his attention with a treat before he has a chance to lunge, and increase the space between your dog and the target. Stay alert and be prepared before the target of his frustration gets too close. This type of behavior may be more common in herding breeds, but any dog can be startled by something he’s not used to or finds exciting.

An important aspect of dog leashes is their sturdiness. Although rope leashes are quite cheap, they are vulnerable to chewing and fraying and are not amongst the most recommended types of leashes. However, it is considered that a better type of leash is the one made of nylon because this material provides a bit of elasticity which is meant to result in more comfort for the dog. On the other hand, nylon leashes can cause chafe or can cut into the skin of the dog.
This inexpensive leash is billed as "indestructible," and this pick was a favorite of our consumer (and K9!) testers. Users raved about the reflective material and thickness of the leash, confident that it could hold up to even large dogs' pulling. Testers also loved the look and security of the clip, although it may be a little large for small dogs. 
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