Speaking of reward, positive reinforcement refers to operant conditioning, and I won’t bore you with the details right now, but suffice it to say B.F. Skinner, one of the leading researchers on reinforcement, found that positive reinforcement (to reward good behavior) is far more superior to punishment in altering undesirable behavior because positive reinforcement results in lasting behavioral modification, and punishment changes behavior only temporarily; and presents many detrimental side effects. If the problem behavior changes temporarily, it will reappear later, and it comes with even more problem behavior! Good Behavior = Reward and Bad Behavior = Punishment, does that sound familiar? Positive reinforcement training is what exotic animal trainers have used for years to teach dolphins, whales and large cats among other animals.  You cannot force a dolphin to do what it does not want to do!


The best dog leash should be sturdy enough to stand the test of time (or the occasional chomp) without immediately fraying or snapping. It must also have a clasp that's easy to attach to your dog's collar or harness and always shuts tight once you click it closed. And for the fashionista dog moms among us, it helps to find one that looks as adorable as your pup does, too!
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A retractable dog leash is a great choice for well-behaved dogs who want a bit more freedom to explore. The TaoTronics retractable dog leash expands to 16 feet, perfect for giving Fido more room to smell the roses, while still giving you control. With the push of a button, you can lock the leash to keep it at a safe distance. It’s best for dogs up to 115 lbs, and is made from durable nylon so it won’t get tangled like some of its competitors.

Leather is a great option for a long-lasting, attractive leash, and the Leatherberg is the best one you can buy. At a great price (under $30), the Leatherberg is constructed from real cowhide leather with a zinc-alloy snap hook, and comes with a full one-year warranty for any reason. It’s made in both black and brown and measures six ft long, perfect for medium to large dogs. This leather leash is treated to stand up to the elements, and won’t attract dust and dog hair the way a nylon version might.
If your dog is the type who has broken through many a leash, a climbing rope may be the best choice. Made from durable kernmantle mountain climbing rope, the Phydeaux leash is one even the strongest dog cannot tear apart. It comes in 12 colors and in both four feet and six feet options, and is tested to hold up to 1000 lbs. It also comes with a one-year warranty if your dog gains superpowers and somehow manages to break it. Reviewers love how lightweight the Phydeaux leash is considering its durability and strength. If you’ve tried other options and your dog keeps breaking through, the Phydeaux is guaranteed to secure even the strongest canine.
The retractable dog leash is one of the most comfortable leashes for the dogs because they allow them to go as far as they want as long as the owner does not consider it a danger. Retractable leashes are usually made of nylon and the retractable device is made of plastic or a stronger composite. Although these leashes can be convenient for both the dog and the owner as it allows some control, they make it difficult to keep an aggressive dog under control which can result in persons or other dogs being attacked. Aggressive dogs should not be walked with such a leash, and puppies should be kept closely to ensure their protection from various dangers such as cars. Dogs with a tendency to bolt without warning should be walked with caution, as a retractable lead can allow the dog to accelerate to significant speed before being stopped suddenly presenting the possibility of injury to both dog and owner.[11]
Take it outside. Finally, you’re ready to test your puppy’s skills in the Great Outdoors. There will be new challenges with this step because all the sounds, smells, and sights your puppy encounters will be intriguing and new to him. Be patient and keep the first walks short. While you’re on a walk, if your puppy looks as if he’s about to lunge toward something or is about to get distracted (you’ll notice this because you will keep your eyes on him at all times), make your cue sound and move a few steps away. Then reward him with a treat for following you.
Cat leashes come in a variety of colors, designs and models and are made of different materials. There are cat leashes made of leather, nylon and rope. Whereas the leather leash is one of the best qualities because of the characteristics of the material, it is also one of the most expensive and not very comfortable for the cat at the same time. Nylon cat leashes and harnesses are, however, more elastic, and thus more comfortable and also provide more control.
Indiana is one of the states that has a restraint statute, which means that dogs must be restrained at all times. Otherwise, if the dog bites a person when not restrained the owner is subject to civil liability and criminal penalties. (Cite needed; definition of "restraint" needed; discussion of local Indiana ordinances forbidding dog tethering needed.)
This leash comes with a comfy padded handle and ring for waste bags, giving you and your best friend the perfect set-up for a long walk. It comes in a variety of lengths, and shorter leashes work great for crowded urban areas or anywhere you want to keep your furry friend close. A swivel clasp at the collar end gives your dog plenty of mobility, and double-woven nylon will last for years. 
As the unleashed dog comes at you, push the button and unleash the umbrella. We aren’t trying to hurt the dog – we are trying to but a barrier between your leashed dog and the outlaw dog. Be aware that if you use an umbrella, throw meat at the oncoming off-leash dog, or use a citronella spray, you are in a way escalating a bad situation. Or, it’s more accurate to say that you are being put in a position that may escalate because of the other owner’s irresponsibility. I’ve had two clients get into fistfights with other owners after spraying an oncoming dog with citronella. On the other hand, we have to protect our dogs. If you use a defensive move, do so carefully cautiously and as a last resort and understand that it might cause more human strife.

Leather is a great option for a long-lasting, attractive leash, and the Leatherberg is the best one you can buy. At a great price (under $30), the Leatherberg is constructed from real cowhide leather with a zinc-alloy snap hook, and comes with a full one-year warranty for any reason. It’s made in both black and brown and measures six ft long, perfect for medium to large dogs. This leather leash is treated to stand up to the elements, and won’t attract dust and dog hair the way a nylon version might.
High quality dog leashes have a good quality metal clip and they can be made of leather, nylon or even chain. The metal clip must securely fasten to a metal ring on the collar in order to maintain good control of the dog.[10] The material of which the leash is made of is not of great importance as long as the leash does not show evidence of wear or fraying. Therefore, leashes should be periodically checked to ensure they are maintained in proper condition.

Cat leashes come in a variety of colors, designs and models and are made of different materials. There are cat leashes made of leather, nylon and rope. Whereas the leather leash is one of the best qualities because of the characteristics of the material, it is also one of the most expensive and not very comfortable for the cat at the same time. Nylon cat leashes and harnesses are, however, more elastic, and thus more comfortable and also provide more control.
Cat leashes come in a variety of colors, designs and models and are made of different materials. There are cat leashes made of leather, nylon and rope. Whereas the leather leash is one of the best qualities because of the characteristics of the material, it is also one of the most expensive and not very comfortable for the cat at the same time. Nylon cat leashes and harnesses are, however, more elastic, and thus more comfortable and also provide more control.
If your pup lunges: If your dog is going after something while on a walk — another dog, a car, a skateboarder, for example, be proactive. Try to redirect his attention with a treat before he has a chance to lunge, and increase the space between your dog and the target. Stay alert and be prepared before the target of his frustration gets too close. This type of behavior may be more common in herding breeds, but any dog can be startled by something he’s not used to or finds exciting.
Since that article ran in June, three dogs who have graduated from my Growly Dog class have been attacked by off-leash dogs. My clients work hard to calm their dog’s anxiety when they see other dogs (which often stems from being attacked the very first time by a rude, off-leash dog!). We help these over-anxious dogs learn to trust their handler, and we rebuild their faith that they can walk safely in their own neighborhood. We make significant progress in keeping these dogs calm and focused on their owners instead of hyper-vigilantly scanning for dangers . . . such as an off-leash dog. In some of these cases, the unleashed dog owner was held responsible and now must pay fines in addition to medical bills; one of my clients ended up having an $8,000 hand surgery after breaking up a dog fight. I have enough stories like that to fill up a very long, pathetic book.
Since that article ran in June, three dogs who have graduated from my Growly Dog class have been attacked by off-leash dogs. My clients work hard to calm their dog’s anxiety when they see other dogs (which often stems from being attacked the very first time by a rude, off-leash dog!). We help these over-anxious dogs learn to trust their handler, and we rebuild their faith that they can walk safely in their own neighborhood. We make significant progress in keeping these dogs calm and focused on their owners instead of hyper-vigilantly scanning for dangers . . . such as an off-leash dog. In some of these cases, the unleashed dog owner was held responsible and now must pay fines in addition to medical bills; one of my clients ended up having an $8,000 hand surgery after breaking up a dog fight. I have enough stories like that to fill up a very long, pathetic book.
States that do not have statewide leash laws are Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Kansas, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming.
The truth is: If it is the law and you allow your dog off leash, you are breaking a law. In a civilized society, members do not simply pick and choose which laws apply to them. I repeat this mantra: It does not matter that you perceive your dog to “be friendly” or that “he loves other dogs.” It does not matter because the dog you have no voice control over is hurling himself into the faces of dogs who very well may NOT be friendly to other dogs. Your dog galloping right up to a leashed dog is rude canine behavior, even if you are running behind your dog screaming: “Don’t worry! He’s friendly!!” You endanger your own dog and all those you allow him to terrorize or bother.
Now, you may begin allowing your pooch to wear them around the house, increasing the wear time. Keep your pup inside with you, during the beginning of training to help him be successful (training outside can be distracting), and click and reward every time he chooses to be near you while he wears the collar and leash, and remember, consistency is key here. Also click and reward if he looks up at you, this is the foundation to getting his focus-You want his attention to be on you!
If your dog is the type who has broken through many a leash, a climbing rope may be the best choice. Made from durable kernmantle mountain climbing rope, the Phydeaux leash is one even the strongest dog cannot tear apart. It comes in 12 colors and in both four feet and six feet options, and is tested to hold up to 1000 lbs. It also comes with a one-year warranty if your dog gains superpowers and somehow manages to break it. Reviewers love how lightweight the Phydeaux leash is considering its durability and strength. If you’ve tried other options and your dog keeps breaking through, the Phydeaux is guaranteed to secure even the strongest canine.
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