Purposes of a leash include: preventing animals from frightening or biting people or other animals, defecating and urinating in inappropriate places, endangering traffic, digging up lawns, causing other damage, getting lost, and getting away from owners. Leashes also provide a clear method of communication and ensure control during training of dogs.
About the author: Annie Phenix, CPDT-KA, is a force-free professional dog trainer enjoying her mountain-filled life in Colorado. She is a member of the Pet Professional Guild and the National Association of Canine Scent Work. She takes her highly trained dogs with them everywhere dogs are welcome because of their exceptionally good manners. Join Annie on her dog-training Facebook page.

Speaking of reward, positive reinforcement refers to operant conditioning, and I won’t bore you with the details right now, but suffice it to say B.F. Skinner, one of the leading researchers on reinforcement, found that positive reinforcement (to reward good behavior) is far more superior to punishment in altering undesirable behavior because positive reinforcement results in lasting behavioral modification, and punishment changes behavior only temporarily; and presents many detrimental side effects. If the problem behavior changes temporarily, it will reappear later, and it comes with even more problem behavior! Good Behavior = Reward and Bad Behavior = Punishment, does that sound familiar? Positive reinforcement training is what exotic animal trainers have used for years to teach dolphins, whales and large cats among other animals.  You cannot force a dolphin to do what it does not want to do!
And because each dog collar & leash material has unique properties and advantages, it’s important to take note of your canine’s breed and the way they behave on walks. Young puppies have tons of energy and are eager to please, so with the right reward, it’s never too early to start leash training. If you know your small and adorable puppy is going to grow into a large and powerful canine, certain dog collars can keep proper walking manners clear from the very beginning. By consistently showing them how to walk the walk as puppies, you can reduce the chance of getting pulled and dragged, as they mature into muscular adults. And if they already have the ability to pull, it’s not too late to suit them up in front-clipping dog harnesses, so they can learn to trust your lead. In addition to being powerful training tools, dog harnesses can also provide your pup with added comfort when you need to suddenly pull on their leash and change the direction they’re walking or running towards. Successfully leash training your pup doesn’t just put your mind at ease, it also helps reduce anxiety in your pup as they realize that you are in control of the situation and can safely steer the pack. Keep your dog walks enjoyable for the two of you with the right accessories from Petco.
Daily exercise is a must for dogs of all shapes, sizes and ages. Finding a well made, durable leash that’s comfortable for both you and your pet is key to keeping your dog active and happy. Even if you have a large, fenced-in backyard, walking your pup around new places gives him a chance to explore and helps to socialize him to other humans and other dogs. While you may consider a leash a simple purchase, finding a leash that best suits your dog’s needs can be a tall order. Whether he’s a puller or a runner, we’ve sifted through the options and found the best products for every type of dog. 
Cat leashes are used with the purpose of preventing the cat getting lost. Unlike dogs, cats rarely attack persons on the street, so cat leashes are mainly a safety measure to protect the pet itself. Very often the collars are replaced with harnesses, because they avoid the dangers of collars which include escaping and running away or choking. Cats are more likely to not be willing to be walked in a harness than dogs are, and are considered to need up to months to be able to adjust to wearing a harness.
I mean, have you ever seen anyone successfully loose leash walk their dog using a retractable leash? I observed a man yesterday at our local pet food center trying to control his medium sized dog while another customer was walking their very petite pups. Guess what he was using? A retractable leash, that malfunctioned, the dog was able to get far enough away from the owner that he lost control and the dog went right after those little puppies. Luckily, the dog just wanted to say hello, and those two little pooches knew exactly how to take care of themselves! This scenario could have turned out pretty bad.
There are also bicycle dog leashes, especially designed for people who enjoy taking their pet in a ride with the bike. The leash is an aluminum tube with a plastic coated cable which runs down through the tube. It extends out of the tube end a couple of feet to allow for ease of movement for the dog. One end connects to the bike and the other to the dog's collar. This keeps them safely away the bike.[1]
About the author: Annie Phenix, CPDT-KA, is a force-free professional dog trainer enjoying her mountain-filled life in Colorado. She is a member of the Pet Professional Guild and the National Association of Canine Scent Work. She takes her highly trained dogs with them everywhere dogs are welcome because of their exceptionally good manners. Join Annie on her dog-training Facebook page.
Teach a cue. Introduce your puppy to a sound cue that means, “food is coming.” Some people like to click and treat, some people use a word like “yes,” and some people cluck their tongue. Whichever you use, the method is the same: In a quiet, distraction-free area, with the puppy on a leash and collar, make the sound. The second your puppy turns toward you and/or looks at you, reward him with a treat. After a few repetitions, you’ll notice your puppy not only looking at you, but also coming over to you for the treat.
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